Regulating a piano involves making fine adjustments to the action, keyboard and pedals so that they operate in the most optimal manner. Over time, the repetitive motions in the mechanisms of the piano start to wear, compact and alter the felt, cloth and wooden parts. This eventually affects the piano’s precise functionality during play. Piano regulation work puts the action components back into their proper working positions. Other reasons necessitating regulation work could involve installation of new hammers, or if existing hammers are reshaped. Changes like this to the piano hammers will impact the delicate balance needed for optimal function and usually require a regulation of the instrument.
Each piano key has several moving parts and about 20 different areas for inspection and possible adjustment. Multiply this by 88 (the number of keys on a piano) and it will be understood just how much goes into building and maintaining a piano. All of these moving parts are adjustable by turning screws, bending wires, changing spring tensions and changing thicknesses of felt or cloth cushions. Because there are so many adjustable and moving parts that interact with each other, a thorough regulation requires very careful attention to many precise details.